James Kinder (b 1814)

parents James Kinder & Mary Rider

born 31 January 1814, Gorton, Lancashire, England[1]
baptised 3 April 1814, Gorton, Lancashire, England[1]
died 30 May 1879, Windsor, Victoria, Australia[26]
buried 31 May 1879, St Kilda Cemetery, Victoria, Australia[26]

James was born on 31 January 1814 and baptised at the Gorton Unitarian Church, Lancashire, on 3 April 1814 according to the following record entry:-

At the time of his baptism, his parents said they were living in Dukinfield. They may have returned to Gorton for young James’ baptism because it was where his father and mother came from and presumably there was still family in the area[1].

Mary Ramsbottom
Mary Ramsbottom's parents were James Ramsbottom and Betty Shepley[2,4,5].  James married Betty Shepley in Mottram-in-Longdendale on 26 August 1808[5].  Mary was born in Mottram-in-Longdendale and baptised on 21 November 1819[5].  


James and Mary Ramsbottom were married on 28 June 1838 at St Leonard’s Parish Church in Middleton (just a little north-east of Manchester), Lancashire[2,28].  Their marriage certificate describes James as a Bachelor and his occupation as a Bookkeeper and Mary as a Spinster.  James' father's occupation is stated as Warper.  Mary's father's occupation was stated as Machine Painter on Mary's marriage certificate and as a Printer on her death certificate[4].  James signed his name and Mary made her mark so presumably she could not write.

Their marriage certificate also states they were both living in Middleton.
  This may have been where Mary’s family was living at the time or they may have chosen Middleton because it was away from their home town since Mary was 6 months pregnant with their first child.   

From James' and Mary's marriage certificate

Middleton ca 1885 St Leonard's Church, Middleton[3]

St Leonard's Church is of medieval origin.  The Church has distinctive building periods dating from 1120 and 1412, but substantially from 1524 when the original structure was radically extended by Sir Richard Assheton, the then Lord of the Manor.  The Church contains an early 16th Century stained glass window commemorating the safe return of a body of archers from Middleton who, under the command of Sir Richard, were instrumental in securing a victory for the English King at the Battle of Flodden Field.  The wooden steeple, built in 1667 on top of the stone tower, is deemed to be one of the only three remaining in this country.
( Reference 3)

A small Ramsbottom family tree is here.

Life in Dukinfield

On the birth certificate of their first son, Cyrus (probably named after his uncle), born in 1839, James’ occupation is described as Warehouseman and his address is 21 Parliament Street, Dukinfield[6].

Parliament Street can be located on the 1894 map below – it runs approximately east/west between Park Street and Wild Street and just to the north of and parallel with Foundry Street.  Parliament Street was demolished in the 1970s and a supermarket is now on the area.

Dukinfield in 1894
Parliament Street no longer exists although Wild Street and Foundry Street can still be seen[7]. Parliament Street in the early 1970s[8]

The houses in Parliament Street are of the basic two-up, two-down design which were very common in the industrial towns of northern England.

In June 1841, James, Mary and their first son, Cyrus, were living at 157 Lodge Lane, Dukinfield.  James' occupation was Cotton Warehouseman and Mary worked as a Weaver[25].  This is their last known address before they left for Australia.

From the 1841 Census

Emigration to Australia

James and Mary together with their son Cyrus emigrated to Australia as bounty (assisted) migrants and were amongst the earliest of free settlers to the Colony of Victoria.  They arrived in the Port Philip District (later named Melbourne) aboard the ship "Wallace" on 26 November 1841 after having left Liverpool, England on 18 August 1841, a journey of over three months.

“The 860 ton ship Wallace anchored off Williamstown after a 100 day voyage from Liverpool.  Captain Andrew Main admitted to Harbour Master Lewis that forty people had been affected by dysentery, but claimed that none had died.  However, closer inspection of the records of the surgeon, Dr Johnathon Greenwood, showed that eleven passengers had indeed perished:  one mother, nine boys and a girl  under seven years of age.  The Melbourne agent, Flinders Lane merchant Henry George Ashurst, claimed 4,908 bounty, but La Trobe reduced this to 4,699.  The 320 healthy migrants were allowed onshore to seek employment.” [9]

The "Wallace" was called the death ship due to the  number of people who died during the voyage.  Other references state the weight of the "Wallace" as 864 tons
.  The compliment of ship’s passengers was 66 families of 227 persons, 52 single men and 38 single females.[11].  The "Wallace" stayed at dock at Williamstown until 2 January 1842 and then sailed for India, and presumably then back to Liverpool, England.

The young 2 year old Cyrus is named in the ship’s manifest as Livius, obviously an error.  James and Mary are described as Labourers, of the Protestant faith, both able to read and write and having originated from Durkinfield, a misspelling of Dukinfield[12].  Fares as bounty immigrants were 19 each for James and Mary and 5 for the child Cyrus.  

from NSW Assisted Immigrant Passenger List

The Bounty Scheme operated from the 1832 until about 1845. The bounty was an incentive, or reward, paid to the recruiting agent (usually the shipping agent or ship owner) to find suitable skilled labour and trades people for the Colonies. These recruiting agents sponsored the immigrant's passage and were later reimbursed by the Colonial Government. Bounties were also paid to the ship’s Masters for the safe delivery of their passengers.  The Colonial Government raised the bounty money through the sale of Crown Land.

- See also Immigration to Eastern Australia 1788-1851
by RB Madgwick, Sydney University Press, 1969.

Life in the Colony of Victoria

Family lore tells that Mary and other women in the early Melbourne settlement had to be accompanied to the Yarra River on washing days by an armed guard of soldiers who were to protect them from Aborigines.  Additional lore has it that prior to embarking for Australia, Mary purchased supplies of cottons, pins, needles and similar items from the proceeds of the sale of their household effects and these items were apparently sold from their shop (presumably their first shop) in the Port Philip District.  It is also suggested that she made such things as toffee and pies for sale in the shop.

James and Mary established and operated shops of various types in, and around, Melbourne.  The baptismal record of their second son John Franklin (8 April 1844), states James to be a Grocer residing in Collingwood.  Since it was common to live on one’s business premises, it is likely that James and Mary lived in Collingwood at the time.  Later, around 1846, they established a grocery and spirit shop at 65 Swanston Street, Melbourne.  They may have owned this building which was later occupied by Martin and Pleasance (Pharmacy Wholesalers).  Their use of the premises at least, is confirmed by an entry in the Port Philip Almanac of 1847 which describes James as a Grocer[13].

It is very likely that the above scene represents the environment that James and Mary found when arriving in Melbourne.

Also in 1846, 1847 and 1848, James is listed as a Grocer in Bourke Street, Melbourne[14,29].  He may have owned (or occupied) a shop at 65 Swanston Street over the  period 1849 through 1854 and traded as a Grocer and Spirit Merchant.[14].  Later his occupation has changed to that of a Contractor and he lived at St David's Street, Prahran (now Upton Road, Windsor)[15,16].

It is believed that James and Mary lived in this small house on the corner of Peel and St David’s Streets, Windsor from approximately 1865.

See also Prahran & Windsor

During the period from 1865 through 1869, James Kinder worked as a Butcher of Peel Street, Prahran[16,17,18,19,20].  In his Will, James bequeaths to his beloved wife, inter alia, “Also the shop in Peel Street, Windsor aforesaid now occupied by me together with all out buildings and appurtenances belonging to the aforesaid dwelling houses and shop.”  He is also listed as a Butcher of Prahran in early Post Office directories[21,22,23].

There are some entries in the Prahran Municipal Rate Book over the period of 1869 to 1870 as follows:-
  • No 3221, James, owned a brick house at St David's Street with an assessed Gross Annual Value of 24, a Net Annual Value of 18 and rates were assessed at 18 shillings;
  • No 3222, James owned a wood house and workshop also in St David's Street which was occupied by his second son John Franklin. This property was assessed to have a Gross Annual Value of 28, a Net Annual Value of 24 and rates were assessed at 1 and 4 shillings.  John Franklin’s occupation is noted as Carpenter.

From the Prahran Rate Book of 1869

The Reverend William Middleton was an important friend to James and Mary during the time they lived in Windsor.  He was the Minister of the small church situated at 72 Peel Street which James and Mary attended.  The building was part used by the Prahran Independent Church, in 1858 the building was used by the United Free Methodist Church however, in 1866, the Reverend Middleton and his congregation decided to join the Congregational Union which in 1977 became part of the Uniting Church.  The church has been converted to a private residence since 1980.  The Reverend William Middleton, was later appointed an executor of James' last Will.

When James and Mary lived in Windsor, it was a partially developed suburb south-east of Melbourne and not nearly so built up as today.  

Here is an early map of the area showing Upton Road and Union Street.  The area was mostly paddocks at this time.

Passing On
At the time of James’ death, he and Mary were living at a house on the corner of Peel Street and St David’s Street, Windsor, Victoria.  James died on 30 May 1870 at his home of cancer of the penis and he outwardly suffered this complaint for two years before passing away[26].  

He was survived by Mary and all of his four sons.  His occupation on his death registration is stated as a Butcher.  James was buried on 31 May 1870 at the St Kilda Cemetery, Victoria, in Grave No 108, Compartment C, Independent Section.

James' death certificate

James’ Will indicates that he grew to become a reasonably wealthy man, leaving at least the following real estate[27]:-
  • a house in St David’s Street, Windsor, occupied by he and Mary;
  • a second house in St David’s Street occupied by his second son, John Franklin;
  • a shop and dwelling in Peel Street, Windsor.
James left one-third of his real estate holdings to Mary and requested that the remaining two-thirds be equally divided between his four sons.  He left all household furniture, money and all other items to Mary.  James appointed Mary and William Middleton as co-executors of his Will which he signed on 31 January 1870.  Mary and William Middleton filed their joint application for probate on James’ estate until 31 January 1877.  Why there was a delay of seven years is not known.


Extracts from James' Last Will

 Mary died on 29 April 1885 at 9:15pm in a house in Denham Street, Hawthorn, Victoria (the house of her son, Alfred) and she was buried on 1 May 1885.  She was buried in the same grave as James, at the St Kilda Cemetery.  Mary died of stricture of the bowels and peritonitis which she suffered for three days immediately prior to her death[28].

Extracted from Mary Ramsbottom death certificate

James and Mary's grave at St Kilda Cemetery

The headstone reads, in part – Sacred to the memory of James Kinder, the Loving Husband of, Mary Kinder, who departed this life May 30th, in the year of our Lord 1870 aged 56 years --unreadable section-- Mary Kinder, The beloved wife of the above, Died April 29th, 1885 aged 66 years, Also Earnest Franklin, Grandson of the above who died Oct-15th-1869 aged 6 weeks. Sacred to the memory of John F Kinder, Beloved Husband of Margaret S Kinder who died 3 Sept 1920 aged 76 years --unreadable section-- Also, Margaret S Kinder, Beloved wife of the above who died 11 Aug 1928, aged 84 years.

Despite the modest appearance of James and Mary’s grave, there are several others buried there also:-

- Earnest Franklin Kinder (grandson of James/Mary) by second son, John Franklin.  Earnest Franklin died only one year before his grandfather  Perhaps the grave was originally his?.

- Son, John Franklin and his wife Margaret Sarah Armstrong.  Both were buried there many years later.

Children of James and Mary Ramsbottom

James and Mary were both survived by all four of their children:-

Cyrus (b 1839).  Cyrus married Mary Hickey and they had many children.

John Franklin (b 1843).  John was born in Melbourne and married Margaret Sarah Armstrong

Enoch (b 1846).  Enoch is my great grandfather

Alfred (b 1848).  Alfred was the last of the four children and married Annette Turner.

Here is a partial list of James and Mary's descendants:-

  1. Gorton Brookfield Unitarian Church, register (courtesy of Rhonda Newberry)
  2. James Kinder & Mary Ramsbottom marriage certificate
  3. Web:  http://www.vmims.com/enter.htm. 
  4. Mary Rambottom death certificate
  5. International Genealogical Index  (http://www.familysearch.org/)
  6. Cyrus Kinder b1839 birth certificate
  7. www.mapquest.com
  8. From a video "Demolition of Dukinfield, Early 1970s" filmed by Elsie Roscoe
  9. Extract from “Perilous Voyages To The New Land” by Michael Cannon
  10. Shipping List NSW, A0 Reel No 2144, 4/4814
  11. Public Record Office of Victoria, Assisted Immigrant Record
  12. Manifest of the ship Wallace, arrived Port Phillip District, 26 November 1841
  13. Port Philip Almanac and Directory (JJ Mouritz),1847
  14. Directory for the Town and District of Port Phillip, 1841
  15. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1861
  16. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1863
  17. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1865
  18. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1866
  19. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1868
  20. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1869
  21. Official Post Office Directories of Victoria of 1868
  22. Official Post Office Directories of Victoria of 1869
  23. Official Post Office Directories of Victoria of 1870
  24. Prahran Municipal Rate Book, 1869-1870
  25. 1841 UK Census  HO 107 / 118 / 1
  26. James Kinder death certificate
  27. James Kinder Last Will and Testament
  28. Mary Ramsbottom death certificate
  29. Alfred Kinder b1848 birth certificate